3. Hammer Blow:

The maximum magnitude of unbalanced force acting perpendicular to the line of stroke is called Hammer Blow. At high speed, this unbalanced force tries to lift the wheels from the rail.

Let W be the dead weight of the wheel. We know that the unbalanced force along the perpendicular to the line of stroke due to the balancing mass 'm', at a radios 'r' in order to balance reciprocating parts only is mω

Thus the threshold condition for lifting of wheel (Hammer blow) can be written as

^{2}r sin θ. This force is maximum when the value of the unbalanced force is equal to mω^{2}r (when sin θ is unity, i.e. θ = 90° or 270° ).Thus the threshold condition for lifting of wheel (Hammer blow) can be written as

Hammer Blow ( W ) = mω

The effect of hammer blow is to cause the variation in pressure between the wheel and the rail. This variation is shown in Fig., for one revolution of the wheel.

Let P be the downward pressure on the rail (or static wheel load)

^{2}rThe effect of hammer blow is to cause the variation in pressure between the wheel and the rail. This variation is shown in Fig., for one revolution of the wheel.

Let P be the downward pressure on the rail (or static wheel load)

∴ Net pressure between the wheel and the rail

=

*P*±*mω*^{2}r
If (

and permissible value of angular speed (or) lifting angular velocity of the crank :

*P -**mω*^{2}r ) is negative, then the wheel will be lifted from the rails. Therefore the limiting condition in order that the wheel does not lift from the rails is given by*P =**mω*^{2}rand permissible value of angular speed (or) lifting angular velocity of the crank :

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