Monday, 21 March 2016

External defects

          The external surface of a material is an imperfection itself because the atomic bonds do not extend beyond it. The surface atoms have neighbor on one side only while atoms inside the crystal have neighbors on either side of them. Since surface atoms are not entirely surrounded by others, they possess higher energy than that of internal atoms. For most metals, the energy of surface atoms is of the order 1 J/m2.

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