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HEAT TREATMENT

DEFINITION:
         Heat treatment refers to an operation or combination of operations, involving heating and cooling to alter the properties of metals, alloys plastic and ceramic materials.
          Changes in material's properties result from changes made in micro-structure of the material. During heat-treatment of a suitable rate, there occur changes in the micro-constituents of the metal. These changes in the micro-constituents of the metal may be in their nature, form, size and distribution in the metal piece. Obviously, temperature of heating and rate of cooling are the main controlling factors of changes in micro-constituents. These changes in micro-constituents then control the changes in physical and mechanical properties of heat treated metal specimen. Heat treatment can be applied to ingots, castings, semi-finished products, welded joints and various elements of machines and instruments. For various fabrication and manufacturing operations, heat treatment is a very important process.

vii. Troosite, and 
            2.5.1 Annealing
                    2.5.1.1 Full Annealing
                    2.5.1.2 Isothermal Annealing
                    2.5.1.3 Process or Sub critical Annealing
                    2.5.1.4 Spheroidisation Annealing
                    2.5.1.5 Diffusion Annealing
                    2.5.1.6 Recrystallisation Annealing.
            2.5.2 Normalising
            2.5.4 Hardening
            2.5.5 Quenching media
            2.5.6 Hardening methods
            2.5.7 Mass effect
            2.5.8 Hardenability
            2.5.9 Tempering
                    2.5.9.1 Method of tempering
                    2.5.9.2 Temper colors
            2.5.11 Quench cracks
            2.5.12 Age hardening
            2.5.13 Surface hardening
                    2.5.13.1 Case hardening
                              2.5.13.1.1 Pack hardening
                              2.5.13.1.2 Liquid Carburizing
                              2.5.13.1.3 Gas Carburizing
                    2.5.13.2 Nitriding
                    2.5.13.3 Cyaniding
                    2.5.13.4 Flame hardening
                    2.5.13.5 Induction hardening


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