Tuesday, 7 March 2017

Balancing of Radial Engines (Direct and Reverse Cranks Method )

          The direct and reverse crank balancing method (also known as Contra-rotating mass balancing) aren't separate methods but rather one way of modelling the inertial effects of a reciprocating mass. The method of direct and reverse cranks is used in balancing of radial or V-Engines, in which the connecting rods are connected to a common crank. Since the plane of rotation of the various crank (in radial or V-Engines) is same, therefore there is no unbalanced primary or secondary couple. This is convenient for machines that have unaligned stroke centerlines (such as V-Engines and Rotary engines) since it eliminates the need to use "complicated Trigonometry".
          Consider a reciprocating engine mechanism as shown in above Fig (a)., Let the crank OC (known as the direct crank) rotates uniformly at 'ω' radians per second in a clockwise direction. Let at any instant the crank makes an angle 'θ'  with the line of stroke OP. The indirect or reverse crank OC' is the image of the direct crank OC, when seen through the mirror placed at the line of stroke. A little consideration will show that when the direct crank revolves in a clockwise direction, the reverse crank will revolve in the anticlockwise direction. We shall now discuss the primary and secondary forces due to the mass (m) of the reciprocating parts at P.

Considering Primary Forces
          We have already discussed that primary force is m.ω 2.r cosθ . This force is equal to the component of the centrifugal force along the line of stroke, produced by a mass (m) placed at the crank pin C. Now let us support that the mass (m) of the reciprocating parts is divided into two parts, each equal to m/2 . 

          It is assumed that m/2 is fixed at the Direct Crank (termed as primary direct crank) pin C and m/2 at the Reverse crank (termed as primary reverse crank) pin C' , as shown in Fig (b).,
Hence, for primary effects of the mass m of the reciprocating parts at P may be replaced by two masses at C each of magnitude m/2.

Note:   The component of the centrifugal forces of the direct and reverse cranks, in a direction perpendicular to the stroke, are each equal to (m/2).ω 2.r sinθ, but opposite in direction. are balanced.

Considering Secondary Forces:
          We know that the secondary force
         In the similar way as discussed above, it will be seen that for the secondary effects, the mass (m) of the reciprocating parts may be replaced by two masses (each m/2 placed at D and D' such that OD=OD'= r/4n. The crank OD is the secondary direct crank and rotates at 2 rad/s in the clockwise direction, while the crank OD' is the secondary reverse crank and rotates at 2 rad/s in the anticlockwise direction as shown in Fig (c).

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